They used non-standardized measures of effect sizes, calculated descriptive statistics to represent the overall effect of these programs and concluded that those selected programs delayed the initiation of sexual activity. For most programs currently implemented in the US, a delay in the initiation of sexual activity constitutes a positive and desirable outcome, since the likelihood of responsible sexual behavior increases with age Howard and Mitchell, According to WHO years is called adolescents [ 2 ]. Moderator analysis could only be pursued partially because of limited information in primary research studies. There were government and 69 private co-educational schools in the six community development blocks of district Ambala. Studies that reported on interventions designed for cognitively handicapped, delinquent, school dropouts, emotionally disturbed or institutionalized adolescents were excluded from the present review since they address a different population with different needs and characteristics.
The effects of the interventions in promoting abstinent behavior reported in 12 controlled studies were included in the meta-analysis. Socio demographic profile and part First, there have been many reports published in newspapers or advocacy newsletters claiming that specific sex education programs have a dramatic impact on one or more outcome variables, yet when these reports have been investigated, they often were found lacking in valid empirical evidence Kirby et al. Suggestions to address this limitation are provided. The mean age of studied subjects was A moderator variable is one that informs about the circumstances under which the magnitude of effect sizes vary Miller and Pollock, An intervention was defined as comprehensive or safer-sex if it included a strong component on the benefits of use of contraceptives as a legitimate alternative method to abstinence for avoiding pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Unfortunately, most of the research does not employ designs to provide conclusive evidence of program effects. Moderator analysis could only be pursued partially because of limited information in primary research studies. For example, large-scale studies often require external agencies or contractors to deliver the program and the quality of the delivery of the contents may turn out to be less than optimal Cagampang et al. Studies had to be either experimental or quasi-experimental in nature, excluding three designs that do not permit strong tests of causal hypothesis: Since most of the studies did not report any effect size, it had to be estimated based on the significance level and inferential statistics with formulae provided by Rosenthal Rosenthal, and Holmes Holmes; Branching from the bibliographies and reference lists in articles located through the original search provided another source for locating studies. The process for the selection of studies was guided by four criteria, some of which have been employed by other authors as a way to orient and confine the search to the relevant literature Kirby et al. Another possible line of explanation refers to changes in cultural mores regarding sexuality that may have occurred in the past decades—characterized by an increasing acceptance of premarital sexual intercourse, a proliferation of sexualized messages from the media and increasing opportunities for sexual contact in adolescence—which may be eroding the attainment of the goal of abstinence sought by educational interventions. When multiple variations of interventions were tested, the effect size was calculated for the most successful of the treatment groups. The impact of lengthening currently existing programs should be evaluated in future studies. Even considering only published studies, it may be difficult to detect duplication. As it has been stated, the exploration of moderator variables could be performed only partially due to lack of information on the primary research literature. It may be the case that in large-scale studies it becomes harder to control for confounding variables that may have an adverse impact on the outcomes. Published studies which were known or suspected to have employed the same database were only included once. There were government and 69 private co-educational schools in the six community development blocks of district Ambala. The limitations in the quality of research in sex education have been highlighted by several authors in the past two decades Kirby and Baxter, ; Card and Reagan, ; Kirby, ; Peersman et al. Sex education should be an integral part of the learning process beginning in childhood and continuing into adult life, because it is lifelong process. The information retrieved from the articles for its potential inclusion as moderators in the data analysis was categorized in two domains: Purpose of the study The present study consisted of a meta-analytic review of the research literature on the effectiveness of school-based sex education programs in the promotion of abstinent behavior implemented in the past 15 years in the US in the wake of the AIDS epidemic. Adolescent in the age group years studying in class 9th to 12th were included and those who had not given consent and who had not completed questionnaires were excluded from study.
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Let's Talk About Sex: Crash Course Psychology #27
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