Four critical years revisited. Teacher immediacy, confidence testing, and the measurement of cognitive learning. A review of their activities and progress in college in the 's. Communication Education, 45, — Interaction and immediacy in online learning. Computer conferencing in higher education. Evaluating online conversation in an asynchronous learning environment: Likewise, given that higher levels of CoI and higher levels of perceived learning lead to increased course grades in online courses, such as the courses utilized in this study, instructors can capitalize on the relationship by employing strategies that enhance teaching presence, social presence, cognitive presence, and students' perceptions of their own learning.
It moved beyond the study of the predictive validity for the three CoI factors on perceived learning and satisfaction in online courses Arbaugh, to actual learning outcomes course points. Internet and Higher Education, 15, 89— Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7 1 , 68— Cognitive presence can be enhanced the use of discussion prompts that require critical thinking deNoyelles et al. Does the community of inquiry framework predict outcomes in online MBA courses? The results may not be generalizable to other populations, including other subject areas, grade levels, or populations with different racial and ethnic representations. International Journal on E-Learning, 13 2 , — An application of Grice's cooperative principle. A third decade of research. Thus, further research is needed to determine how applicable the model presented in this study is to other populations and, additionally, how reliable the model is with these different populations. The influence of computer-mediated communication systems on community. Bridging the transactional distance gap in online learning environments. These results provide implications for course designers and instructors who desire to provide a better online learning experience for their graduate students. Given the limitation of the use of two courses and one program at a single university, this study should be replicated across universities in various disciplines to further empirically validate or add to the CoI model. Thus, our study supported the findings of Shea and Bidjerano and Garrison and Cleveland-Innes that suggest social presence is not sufficient by itself to produce an effective online learning environment; teaching presence, complimentary with cognitive and social presence, is necessary for student learning. Teacher immediacy, confidence testing, and the measurement of cognitive learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 19 5 , — The community of inquiry framework meets the SOLO taxonomy: Consistent with the Community of Inquiry CoI theory and other research that formed the conceptual framework of this study, it was hypothesized that the predictor variables would significantly describe variance within course points. These findings provide further support that the CoI framework as well as perceived learning may provide a useful conceptual framework for both evaluating and explaining an effective online learning environment. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 6— Given these results, the important role of the instructor is affirmed and the need for higher education institutions to develop well-structured online courses and train online faculty to instruct online learners using an approach that is personable, knowledgeable, and timely is suggested. This study provided evidence that the CoI factors cognitive presence, teaching presence, and social presence and perceived learning significantly predicted online graduate students' course points. Internet and Higher Education, 17, 48— Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Clarifying the relationship between teacher nonverbal immediacy and student cognitive learning: Perceptions of online presence and their relationship to cognitive and affective learning.
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